# Introduction to APES

Scientific Method

• Know....

• the steps of the scientific method

• how to write a TESTABLE hypothesis

• how to identify dependent, independent, and control variables

• how to set up a controlled experiment

• how many experimental groups are needed

• how to set up a control

• what to keep the same and what to change between experimental groups

Calculations

• Know how to calculate:

• an average

• percentages

• percent difference

• Know how to convert between metric units

Scientific Notation

• Know how to....

• write very large and very small numbers in scientific notation

• Add and subtract numbers in scientific notation

• Multiply and divide numbers in scientific notation

• Solve problems using dimensional analysis

Significant Figures

• Know how to....

• Determine how many significant figures are in a number

• Add/subtract numbers using significant figures

• Multiply/divide numbers using significant figures

Pioneers of Environmental Science

• Know the following people and why they are important to environmental science:

• Rachel Carson - she is the most important of the 4. There's always at least one question about her on the AP exam.

• John Muir

• Gifford Pinchot

• Aldo Leopold

Environmental Problems

• Know the BASICS of the following environmental problems (we'll get deeper into each of these as the course progresses):

• Biodiversity Loss

• Risk Assessment

• Water Pollution

• Food Production

• Energy

• Climate Change

• Air Pollution

Tragedy of the Commons

• The tragedy of the commons suggests that individuals will use shared resources in their own self-interest rather than in keeping with the common good, thereby depleting the resources.

• What is an example of the Tragedy of the Commons?

Ecosystem Services

• There are four categories of ecosystem services: provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting.

• Anthropogenic activities can disrupt ecosystem services, potentially resulting in economic and ecological consequences.

1. What services does nature provide for us?

2. What is the value of natural capital?

3. How does nature remedy environmental issues?

Sustainability

• Human survival depends on developing practices that will achieve sustainable systems. A suitable combination of conservation and development is required. The management of resources is essential. Understanding the role of cultural, social, and economic factors is vital to the development of solutions.

• Sustainability refers to humans living on Earth and their use of resources without depletion of the resources for future generations. Environmental indicators that can guide humans to sustainability include biological diversity, food production, average global surface temperatures and CO2 concentrations, human population, and resource depletion.

• Sustainable yield is the amount of a renewable resource that can be taken without reducing the available supply.

1. How do communities become sustainable?

2. How are the struggles of urban areas different in achieving sustainability?

3. What is a lifestyle of voluntary simplicity?

Environmental Policy

• You only need to know the following pieces of legislation:

• CLEAN AIR ACT (CAA)

• CLEAN WATER ACT (CWA)

• CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES)

• COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA)

• MONTREAL PROTOCOL

• KYOTO PROTOCOL

• ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT (ESA)

• SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (SWDA)

• DELANEY CLAUSE OF FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT

• RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT (RCRA)

1. How and why have environmental policies been created?

2. What are the main environmental statutes and how are they implemented?