Important Case Studies and Legislation
Colorado River Case Study - expect to see an FRQ about this on your exam
Distribution of Water on the Planet
Clean Water Act (CWA)
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
Major terrestrial biomes include taiga, temperate rainforests, temperate seasonal forests, tropical rainforests, shrubland, temperate grassland, savanna, desert, and tundra.
Know the abiotic and biotic factors that determine a particular biome.
The global distribution of nonmineral terrestrial natural resources, such as water and trees for lumber, varies because of some combination of climate, geography, latitude and altitude, nutrient availability, and soil.
Ponds vs. Lakes vs. Streams vs. Rivers
Estuaries vs. Intertidal vs Coral Reefs
All are highly productive
Which is located in nutrient-rich water?
Which is located in nutrient-poor water?
Which has the clearest water?
Why are these areas called nurseries?
Most red light is absorbed in the upper 1m of water, and blue light only penetrates deeper than 100m in the clearest water. This affects photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems, whose photosynthesizers have adapted mechanisms to address the lack of visible light
What are the zones of the ocean?
Which gets the most light?
Which gets the least?
Why is this important?
Algae in marine biomes supply a large portion of the Earth's oxygen and also take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Why is this important (especially the carbon dioxide absorption)?
The global distribution of nonmineral natural resources, such as different types of fish, varies because of some combination of salinity, depth, turbidity, nutrient availability, and temperature
Human survival depends on developing practices that will achieve sustainable systems. A suitable combination of conservation and development is required. The management of resources is essential. Understanding the role of cultural, social, and economic factors is vital to the development of solutions.
How should we manage and sustain parks and natural reserves?
What is the ecosystem approach to sustaining biodiversity?
Will restoration encourage further destruction and what can you do?
Why is biodiversity important?
What does it mean for an ecosystem to be "resilient"?
Why would an ecosystem with a higher species richness be more resilient?
Which species will die first when an ecosystem is changed or destroyed?
How does the conservation of biological diversity involve an understanding of the intricate relationships among species and between species and their environments?
What are the ecological functions of biological diversity?
What major problems are associated with biological diversity and what impact does human activity have?
Evolution and Natural Selection
Environmental changes, either sudden or gradual, may threaten a species’ survival, requiring individuals to alter behaviors, move, or perish.
Why is it important for a species to have a high genetic diversity?
What can happen if a species loses too much genetic diversity?
Many island species have evolved to be specialists versus generalists because of the limited resources, such as food and territory, on most islands. The long-term survival of specialists may be jeopardized if and when invasive species, typically generalists, are introduced and outcompete the specialists.
Why is island biogeography important?
Which would have more UNIQUE species: an island close to the mainland or an island far away from the mainland?
Which islands are examples of evolution due to an island's location?
Why are island species unlikely to be successful in the wild if they were transported to the mainland?
Ecological tolerance refers to the range of conditions, such as temperature, salinity, flow rate, and sunlight that an organism can endure before injury or death results.
What abiotic factors tend to influence the ecological tolerance of a species? Biotic?
What limits the growth of populations?
How do communities and ecosystems respond to changing environmental conditions?
Natural disruptions to ecosystems have environmental consequences that may, for a given occurrence, be as great as, or greater than, many human-made disruptions.
Know some examples of ecosystem disruptions and their effects.
What can an organism do if their habitat changes? HINT: Adapt, die, move - Know examples of each.
An indicator species is a plant or animal that, by its presence, abundance, scarcity, or chemical composition, demonstrates that some distinctive aspect of the character or quality of an ecosystem is present.
What is the differences in primary and secondary succession?
Which is more common?
Which species arrive first in succession? Last?
What are differences in these species?
Why are keystone species important?
Know some examples of keystone species.
What are indicator species?
Know some examples of indicator species/phyla.
What is the difference between an indicator and keystone species?
How do species replace one another in ecological succession?
Relationships Between Species
Competition can occur within or between species in an ecosystem where there are limited resources. Resource partitioning— using the resources in different ways, places, or at different times—can reduce the negative impact of competition on survival.
How do species interact?
Be able to describe mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
Know examples of each of the above.
Why is competition important?
Why would an organism not utilize its entire niche?
HIPPCO (habitat destruction, invasive species, population growth, pollution, climate change, and over exploitation) describes the main factors leading to a decrease in biodiversity.
Habitat fragmentation occurs when large habitats are broken into smaller, isolated areas. Causes of habitat fragmentation include the construction of roads and pipelines, clearing for agriculture or development, and logging.
Some ways humans can mitigate the impact of loss of biodiversity include creating protected areas, use of habitat corridors, promoting sustainable land use practices, and restoring lost habitats.
Memorize HIPPCO - not just the acronym, but what each stands for.
What are some problems with habitat fragmentation? Why does it disproportionately affect larger animals?
How can climate change affect a species' range.
What are some benefits of domesticating a species? Drawbacks?
What can we do to reduce/mitigate the impacts of biodiversity loss? Can all strategies be used with all species? Why or why not?
Should we protect certain species and not others?
Invasive species are species that can live, and sometimes thrive, outside of their normal habitat. Invasive species can sometimes be beneficial, but they are considered invasive when they threaten native species.
How do invasive species get to their new habitat?
What is the difference between a nonnative species and an invasive species?
Is a nonnative species ALWAYS an invasive species?
What are typical characteristics of invasive species?
How can we reduce the impacts of invasive species?
A variety of factors can lead to a species becoming threatened with extinction, such as being extensively hunted, having limited diet, being outcompeted by invasive species, or having specific and limited habitat requirements.
Species in a given ecosystem compete for resources like territory, food, mates, and habitat, and this competition may lead to endangerment or extinction.
What is an endangered species?
Which species are MOST likely to become endangered? Why?
What can we do to protect endangered species? Describe some SPECIFIC examples. (NOTE: "ban whatever" or "protect whatever" is not specific enough)
Do these strategies always work? Why or why not?